Many of the Roman mines had to target low-grade copper ores, because the better-quality ore had been entirely removed during the Bronze and Iron Age periods.
The Roman mines consisted of horizontal or gently sloping adits and galleries, connected by vertical shafts, with natural rock arches to support the roofs. Those in Qalb Ratyah often had low and narrow entry spaces that could be easily controlled by those supervising the workforce.
Location of Qalb Ratyah
The entrance of a mine in Qalb Ratyah